Facts Of Evolution

… Facts of Evolution (Part 1): Introduction.

Please SUBSCRIBE to Science & Reason:


1. Does The Evidence Support Evolution?

2. Vitamin C And Common Ancestry

3. Are We Descended From Viruses?

4. Does The Fossil Record Support Evolution?

5. Where Are The Transitional Forms?


1. Introduction

2. Universal Common Descent

3. Good Design, Bad Design

4. Speciation And Extinction

5. How Fast Is Evolution?

In biology, evolution is the change in the inherited traits of a population of organisms through successive generations. When a population splits into smaller groups, these groups evolve independently and develop into new species.

Anatomical similarities, geographical distribution of similar species and the fossil record indicate that all organisms are descended from a common ancestor through a long series of these divergence events, stretching back in a tree of life that has grown over the 3,500 million years of life on Earth.

Evolution is the product of two opposing forces: processes that constantly introduce variation in traits, and processes that make particular variants become more common or rare. A trait is a particular characteristic such as eye color, height, or a behavior that is expressed when an organism’s genes interact with its environment.

Genes vary within populations, so organisms show heritable differences (variation) in their traits. The main cause of variation is mutation, which changes the sequence of a gene. Altered genes are then inherited by offspring. There can sometimes also be transfer of genes between species.

Two main processes cause variants to become more common or rare in a population. One is natural selection, which causes traits that aid survival and reproduction to become more common, and traits that hinder survival and reproduction to become more rare.

Natural selection occurs because only a few individuals in each generation will survive, since resources are limited and organisms produce many more offspring than their environment can support.

Over many generations mutations produce successive, small, random changes in traits, which are then filtered by natural selection and the beneficial changes retained. This adjusts traits so they become suited to an organism’s environment: these adjustments are called adaptations.

Not every trait, however, is an adaptation. Another cause of evolution is genetic drift, an independent process that produces entirely random changes in how common traits are in a population. Genetic drift comes from the role that chance plays in whether a trait will be passed on to the next generation.


There are 47 comments

Add yours
  1. Jesse Chalmers

    @johnsenkenn Thats because new species dont just get born from existing species. The process, called speciation, is slow and requires specific conditions, such as environmental change or isolation of a group from its parent group. There are many examples of speciation occurring in nature right now. Look into the Ensatina salamanders, Darwins finches of the Galapagos Islands, or African cichlids, just to name a few, and see for yourself.

  2. BiggestOfDaddies

    The fact of the matter is, we don't need a fossil record to prove evolution happens. There is already mountains of evidence that supports Evolutionary theory without use of the fossil record. That we have a fossil record that ALSO confirms it is just icing on the cake.

  3. JaS A.L.

    @909Kunfused909 You must be an idiot to not understand what he's saying. And evolution is not a "Religion" if you don't want to understand the concept, then instead of hurting your little brain, go pray to your "God". And stay away from things you don't understand or don't care to understand.

  4. pardh1961

    @Texoki Please explain what you think the Cambrian explosion means. Does the explosion mean that all living things appeared at once? What creatures appeared? Do you know that every species in the Cambrian was aquatic? And that not a single species is still in existance- all are now extinct. Do you think that indicates that man, and plants, and zebras were all spoken into existence in 6 days? The Cambrian era was about 60 million years long…not exactly an explosion, but fast geologically

  5. pardh1961

    @Texoki The Pre-Cambrian period was very long, with numerous soft-bodied creatures (some of which left fossils), but soft bodies would not be expected to fossilize often. This search may never yeild the quantity of ancestors that you seek. Your use of the concept of the Cambrian era indicates that you agree with geologists understanding of rocks, strata, and geological time. Are you selecting just the scientific findings that support the religious stories you've been taught since childhood?

  6. Helge129

    @ironman197268 Vegetation for one, stops errosion almost completely in some cases. Also it takes hundreds of millions of years for stuff to completely errode away, and the crust is constantly being "replenished" so to say, from sediments, etc.

  7. Helge129

    @ironman197268 No, I did not. Also the age of the earth is not solely based on the oldest rock on Earth – which is 3.7 billion years old – but also on stuff in the solar system. All of that stuff is 4.6 billion years old.

  8. Helge129

    @ironman197268 slow burial? Not at all. It's fast burial, such as mud avalanches, or burial in oxygen-poor environments, such as swamps, that gives fossils. The millions of fossils we do have, are the few that were buried under such conditions. Most animals that die never or only partially fossilize.

  9. Helge129

    @ironman197268 No, they are proof that a global flood never happened. If a global flood happened, strata would not have appeared, but all the materials layered into strata would be mixed together uniformly.

  10. Helge129

    @ironman197268 That is incorrect. The errosion rates are different everywhere and at different altitudes. In high mountains, such as the himalaya, errosion occurs almost exclusively through glaciers. It never rains, if at all snows. And Mr. Everest is a relatively young mountain. I'm no geologist, mind you. I suggest you watch the "Earth Story" series of documentaries on the channel "EvolutionDocumentary", explains it better than I ever could.

  11. Helge129

    @ironman197268 55 million years, compared to 4600 million years is relatively young. Wind causes errosion, but it's neglible if the mountain rises faster than it errodes.

  12. Helge129

    @ironman197268 That's the thing tho, it would not. Erosion is different everywhere, and depends on what kind of rock you have.

  13. Helge129

    @ironman197268 For one, look at the Dover vs Kitzmiller case, where they spewed one lie after the other to promote their case. Three words: "Intelligent Design Promponentists", which is a typo where they didn't properly replace "Creationists". ID is creationism rebranded, and fails to provide evidence…while there are I think over 300,000 articles confirming evolution…and none for creationism.

  14. Helge129

    @ironman197268 Yeah, The very first sentence is already incorrect. Evolution makes no prediction or claim on the Age of the Earth. It simply explains how life diversifies, period. Not more, not less.

    Every single of those over 300000 "atheist evolutionist lying biased" articles provides evidence.

  15. Helge129

    @Helge129 I might add here that due to the current topography of the continents, errosion rates are exorbitantly high, which is not usually the case.

    And that most christians and muslims accept evolution, hell, any christian who denies evolution is commiting blasphemy, since the last pope said evolution is true, and he is infallible…according to christianity 😉

  16. Helge129

    @ironman197268 It doesn't matter if scripture supports it. The good thing about science is that it's true regardless of wether or not you believe it, unless you can falsify *insert random theory here*

    Also using scripture as evidence is…weak-minded at best.

  17. Helge129

    @Helge129 Even without the fossil record, even if the Earth was less than 10.000 years old, evolution would still work. It's been directly observed. One good example being nylonase. A mutation added I think 275 new genes, which alllowed a protein to be synthesized that allows the bacteria to digest nylon. This Is new information.

  18. Helge129

    @raponte1955 My scientific peers? I'm a 20 years old game artist, not a scientist lol. What I told you took only some very basic understanding of evolution and a tiny bit of research.

    For everything to evolved the way it is now, yes, that does take billions of years indeed. However! Even IF skydaddy did create heaven and earth in 6 days 10000 years ago, evolution would still go on. Nylonase is real by, not to be confused with Mayonaise, which is not a protein, or an instrument.

  19. Helge129

    @ironman197268 A whole new protein that didn't exist before isn's a subtle change. Increased lung volume is relatively subtle, and not passed on to its offspring. Nylonase is.

    A game artist is someone who creates the art assets for video games.

  20. Jarrod0067

    I want to see baby snakes born with wings and monkeys born with human feet too because that would prove evilution false!

  21. Jarrod0067

    Watch this

    Wings are specific to birds for a reason. If we saw a primate with webbed feet, a cow with scales, a frog with a pouch, or a fish with hands, it would scream out non-evolution as there have been no fossils found that transition between. You have to realize how common ancestry works. We are primates, which means we are in the ape family. We are also mammals, giving birth to live young. We are vertebrates as we have a backbone. This all shows the path of evolution

  22. Jarrod0067

    1. The Colugo glides using membranes and can show how mammals can adapt to flight
    2. You do realize how rare fossils are, right?
    3. If something aint broke, don't fix it
    4. Depends on what you define as 'stop'
    5. …..
    6. I haven't found evidence for evolution, therefore I can't claim I have any

  23. Thomas P

    Do you know how ridiculous that sounds? Baby snakes born with wings? Monkeys born with human feet? That's not how evolution work!

  24. Thomas P

    Well, it's fine that you don't believe in evolution. Evolution doesn't require your belief like fictional God's do. Evolution happens whether or not you believe it, like it, hate it or anything else. There is so much information out there pertaining to evolution that it's overwhelmingly proven. You remind me of me about 5 years ago. Perhaps you'll grow up and you'll accept facts.

  25. Thomas P

    It doesn't mater if I believe in it or not. All the evidence points to evolution and therefore it happened whether or not I believe in it. Bird flu actually is really relevant and I'd like you to address it. Seeing as it just recently mutated, evolved again and now all the scientists are back in their labs working around the clock to understand this newly evolved strain to combat it. By the way, there is no brain washing, I'm not you anymore. I left that garbage when I decided facts spoke loudly

  26. Thomas P

    Here's the problem with people like you, and myself at one time, no matter how much evidence and facts are presented to you, you will reject them for your bible. What standard of aging do you use to test that the earth isn't billions of years old? Or the Universe at that? Your ignorance by the way, it's not a bliss. It's incredibly annoying that you refuse to accept any factually based evidence and shows that you are biased to the highest degree.

  27. Thomas P

    You keep saying they can't, they can't. And then you provide nothing to back up y our claims. That's not how science works. You have a hypothesis, you test it, then you test it some more. Then you have other test it to see if they come up with the same conclusions. Then you try to prove it wrong, and if you can't it becomes a theory. Stop trying to skip steps in science. Refusing to believe something and proving it are two different things. PROVE IT WITH TESTS!

  28. Thomas P

    "Billions of years has a Nightmare, and it's called Erosion. There is no way…"
    "Evilution did not, and does not happen." I can keep going through but I lose character space. You didn't show any data, tests or any thing to give evidence that Erosion disproves billions of years. You remind me of a Heckler, you yell absurdities and that's it. Erosion, yeah, erosion disproves it. Evolution didn't happen, it didn't. You provide nothing to base your assertions.

  29. Thomas P

    You are simply just wrong. DNA did not come first, proteins did. After proteins came RNA and then eventually DNA. We know this because we built a hypothesis, and then tested the fuck out of it. Something you creationists never do. Here's what I see from you people, you hope that you can just prove us wrong so you guys who do no actual science will win by default. It won't work, that's why you fail in the courts 100% of the time.

  30. Thomas P

    Millers Experiment! But to continue to talk to you has become a bit of a bore. You cannot be reasoned with! You simply have blinders on your eyes and pretend to know science when in reality you know nothing!

  31. Thomas P

    I love ignorant people, I really….O wait, nope! I don't. I really don't! Also, I can't go back to where I was 5 years ago. I faced reality, and I accepted it. I was born, and I will die. My atoms will leave me, and they will find themselves somewhere else to exist whereas my existence will cease. There is no God. There is no proof of one and a ancient book is not proof of one. The burden is on you to prove one exists!

  32. Thomas P

    The belief that a person who has never studied astronomy, cosmology, physics, chemistry, biology, or geology, and who has never read any of the tens of thousands of peer-reviewed scientific papers describing the evidence for (1) Big Bang Theory, (2) the theory of abiogenesis, and (3) the theory of evolution, …is qualified to describe and evaluate these three fields of science. We call that, scientific ignorance. The last post to I will give! You can lead a horse to water….not make him drink.

  33. Thomas P

    Okay, my real last post. I will never go back to Christianity. I'm not a fucking mindless idiot anymore. So with that, I leave you with blasphemy of the Holy Ghost. Last night I watched him getting fucked up his ass by Muhammed. Yep, he was screeching cause he's gay and loved it so much, then Jesus jumped in there and jizzed all over Holy Ghost's face and he lapped it up like a dog does water. There you have it, no hope for me! Spit on your war God and the many other guises of him!

  34. Thomas P

    That's okay, if he does return, my friends and I have another piece of wood and nails for him. We'll put him right back where he belongs!

Post a new comment